DNSSEC, Future of Internet, IGF, Internet, IPv6, new gTLD, News, Open Source, technology

Y2K20: Opportunities in design and testing for freelance application developers, small IT companies, medium, large and huge.

It was not uncommon to find the earliest of the Web Application Developers to assume that all domain names would end in .com, all email addresses would follow the format @xyz.com. While developers took into account newer domain names such as .info in due course, most continued to design applications to accept Domain names and email addresses in ASCII just as software developers in the 80s assumed that it would be unnecessary to have any more than two digits to denote the year, which led to the famous Y2K issue towards the year 2000.

Imaginary logo of y2k20, a name that does not exist

Now there are new Top Level Domain Names (such as .family and .game) and Internationalized Domain Names (in various native non-ascii scripts of India and the world, such as .??????? and .???? (I typed India in Tamil and Devanagiri, displays here as ???) as well as Internationalized email Internet Domain Names that would allow users to have addresses in their native scripts.

If a browser or a form in a webpage limits acceptance of domain names or email addresses with a rule such as “a domain name must be in English and end with .com, or .net or .org” or “an email address must be in English or numerals” then it is archaic.

It is a problem far larger in its dimensions than the Y2K problem of year 2000 which kept the IT community of the entire world talking. On this problem of “Universal Acceptance” there appears to be inadequate attention to the problem in global public interest as well as to the commercial opportunities it presents for enterprising Developers and Corporations. This might emerge to be a huge commercial vertical in itself in view of the Design changes to be brought about and in terms of the testing requirements. #Deity #NASSCOM #WIPRO #TiE #TCS #Cognizant (If you are from a different country, please feel free to rewrite this post to suit your country and publish it. This post is not copyrighted.)

For more information, follow the publicly archived, transparent discussions in the IETF forum, at ICANN and at the Internet Society on this issue. You could also write to isocindiachennai (At) gmail (dot) com for additional pointers or any clarification. Or ask your Executives at a higher level to take part in ICANN meetings that are open and held as multi-stakeholder global meetings. And also join the Internet Society India Chennai Chapter. Such participation would lead you to positive involvement in the global Internet and also connect you to business opportunities not only in the y2k20 (there is no such term, the term is coined to describe the issue and the opportunity) but also in DNSSEC, IPv6 transition, Internet of Things (IoT) and new gTLDs.

What does the phrase “Universal Acceptance” mean?

“Universal Acceptance of domain names and email addresses” (or just “Universal Acceptance”, or even “UA”, for short) means that all apps and online services should accept all Internet domain names and email addresses equally.

Universal Acceptance is an important concept these days because the Internet is changing. One way that it is changing is that addresses no longer need to be composed of ASCII characters. (ASCII characters are the 127 Latin-script letters, numerals and punctuation marks that are dominant on the Internet today. All the characters in this document so far have been ASCII characters.)

Most people on earth are not native speakers of languages which use the ASCII characters, so moving from a character set limited to 127 characters to an alternate which can support more than one million characters is essential for those people to fully use and benefit from the Internet. This alternate is called Unicode.

Another way that the Internet is changing is by allowing lots of new domain names. Not only are there simply more of them, but some are longer than any of the older domain names and many of them use the same Unicode system mentioned above.

Note: “Universal Acceptance” is sometimes confused with “Universal Access” or “Universal Accessibility”; those phrases refer to connecting everyone on earth to the Internet, and to building Internet-connected systems for all differently-abled people on earth, respectively. Universal acceptance is limited to domain names and email addresses.

A special group called “Universal Acceptance Steering group (UASG) has been created to work on issues related to Universal Acceptance. UASG doesn’t work on anything else (e.g. Universal Access or Universal Accessibility).

How does an app or an online service support Universal Acceptance?

Software and online services support Universal Acceptance when they offer the following capabilities:

A. Can accept any domain name or email name as an input from a user interface, from a document, or from another app or service

B. Can validate and process any domain name or email name

C. Can store any domain name or email name

D. Can output any domain name or email name to a user interface, to a document, or to another app or service

Unfortunately, older apps and online services don’t always offer those capabilities. Sometimes they lack support for Unicode; sometimes they make wrong assumptions about new domain names, or even assume they don’t exist. Sometimes they support Universal Acceptance in some features but not in all.

How can Universal Acceptance be measured?

Universal Acceptance can be measured in a few ways.

1. Source code reviews and unit testing

2. Manual testing

3. Automated testing

#1 means inspecting the source code and verifying that only the correct programming techniques, software libraries and interfaces (AKA “APIs”) have been used, then verifying that the app or service works by testing against specific test cases for the capabilities A-D listed above. #1 is only practical for app developers and online service providers.

UASG is reaching out directly to the community of app developers and the largest online service providers to encourage them to perform source code reviews and testing to determine the level of Universal Acceptance in their offerings. UASG is also providing a list of criteria which can be used to develop test cases for the capabilities A-D listed above.

#2 can be done by anyone, but it’s labor-intensive. Examples of #2 would include submitting an email address when registering for an online service and verifying that it has been accepted. Since there are lots of potential online services to sign up for, and lots of potential new email address combinations, one must pick and choose which combinations of app, services, email address and/or domain name to test.

UASG is developing a list of top web sites, apps, email addresses and domain names suitable for testing.

#3 requires up-front technical work, but is more scalable to large measuring and monitoring efforts. An example of #3 is the recent gTLD investigation performed by APNIC on behalf of ICANN. <http://www.potaroo.net/reports/Universal-Acceptance/UA-Report.pdf >

UASG is investigating methods of automated testing for Universal Acceptance and will share these as they are developed.

Internet, IPv6, News

APRICOT fellowships now open

The annual APRICOT conference is a unique and successful educational forum for Internet builders in the Asia-Pacific region, to learn from their peers and leaders in the Internet community.

Senior practitioners from the Asia Pacific and around the world
contribute their time to APRICOT as presenters, teachers and trainers, to produce a non-commercial high quality conference.

Since 2000, APRICOT has incorporated a Fellowship Program to provide opportunities to developing country personnel to participate in APRICOT. The Program provides financial assistance to selected applicants to cover some of the expenses associated with attending the conference.

The APRICOT Fellowship Committee now cordially invites applications for fellowship funding to participate in APRICOT 2013 in Singapore from 19 February to 1 March 2013.

For more information about the Fellowship award package, criteria, and application form, please visit:


Please note, submissions close on Monday, 29 October 2012.

IGF, IPv6, News

Internet Society Fellowships to the IETF

Internet Society Fellowships to the IETFThe Internet Society has announced that it is inviting applications for its latest Internet Society Fellowships to the IETF.  The Fellowship programme allows engineers from emerging and developing economies to attend an Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) meeting.

As you know, the IETF is the Internet’s premier standards-making body, responsible for the development of protocols used in IP-based networks. IETF participants represent an international community of network designers, operators, vendors, and researchers involved in the technical operation of the Internet and the continuing evolution of Internet architecture.

Fellowships will be awarded through a competitive application process. The Internet Society is currently accepting fellowship applications for the next two IETF meetings:

* IETF 84, July 29 – August 3, 2012, Vancouver, BC, Canada

* IETF 85, November 4-9, 2012, Atlanta, GA, USA


Fellowship applications for both IETF meetings are due by 23 March 2012.

I encourage you to pass on information about this program to individuals involved in your network that have a keen interest in the Internet standardisation activities of the IETF.

The Internet Society Fellowships to the IETF are sponsored by Afilias, Google, Microsoft, and Intel.

IPv6, News


IPv6 Launch 


World IPv6 Launch








Major Internet service providers (ISPs), home networking equipment manufacturers, and web companies around the world are coming together to permanently enable IPv6 for their products and services by 6 June 2012.

For more information on this event and for resources, http://www.worldipv6launch.org/ down due to overwhelming response at the moment this post is published.